PhD defence Rena Bood (UvA) – 1 May 2020

Between Hispanophobia and Hispanophilia: The Spanish Fascination in English and Dutch 17th-century Literature.

Promotor: prof. dr. J.T. Leerssen, copromotor: dr. Y. Rodríguez Pérez

Until recently, the image of Spain in early-modern literature has primarily been discussed in line with the Black Legend narrative. This negative image of Spain and the Spaniard, however, was not the only image available to early-modern audiences. This study shows that a positive and negative image of Spain co-existed and thrived in English and Dutch literature between c. 1621 and 1700. Although Spain was the enemy of both England and the Dutch Republic for most of the seventeenth century, the English and Dutch fascination with Spanish cultural productions continued to grow. Spain proved to be an irresistible source for English and Dutch translators, playwrights, and authors. This fascination greatly aided the development of the theatrical traditions in both countries. The success of Spanish works in the Amsterdam Municipal Theatre and as performed by various London-based theatre companies affected the book production industries of both cities. Similarly stimulating the industry were the popular Spanish picaresque novels which were both translated and imitated in England and the Dutch Republic. Though Spanish characters in novels and plays often exemplify the stereotypical traits of the early-modern Spaniard, there is a remarkably versatile gradation of the Black Legend narrative. This study shows that this gradation needs to be discussed on a spectrum to gain a better understanding of the image of Spain in England and the Netherlands in the seventeenth century.

PhD defence Anna-Luna Post (UU) – 30 September 2020

Claiming Fame for Galileo: Reputation and Scholarly Credibility in Early Modern Italy

 

Op 30 september verdedigt Anna-Luna Post haar proefschrift getiteld ‘Claiming Fame for Galileo: Reputation and Scholarly Credibility in Early Modern Italy’ in het Academiegebouw.
Wat betekent roemcultuur voor de wetenschap? Hoe word je beroemd als wetenschapper, en hoe stuurt dit onze kennis? Wordt onderzoek van bekende wetenschappers eerder voor waar aangenomen, of heeft roem ook een keerzijde? Dit proefschrift beantwoordt deze vragen door te kijken naar één van de meest beroemde én omstreden wetenschappers aller tijden: Galileo Galilei.

Het onderzoek van Post laat zien dat de roem van Galileo Galilei tot stand kwam door de actieve inmenging van anderen (waaronder wetenschappers, maar ook hovelingen, dichters en priesters), die handelden uit pragmatische of ideologische motieven en zijn roem zowel als argument vóór, als tégen zijn geloofwaardigheid gebruikten. Roem was dus een belangrijke, maar wispelturige graadmeter voor geloofwaardigheid.

 

30 september 2020
09:15 – 10:15
Academiegebouw, Domplein 29, Universiteit Utrecht
Promotor(es): Prof. A.S.Q. Visser

 

Afbeelding: Galileo Galilei © Wikimedia

PhD defence Jan Rotmans (UvA) – 23 April 2020

Dhr. J. Rotmans: Enlightened Pessimism: Republican Decline in Dutch Revolutionary Thought, 1780-1800. Promotor is prof. dr. N.C.F. van Sas.

 

Historici zouden systematisch aandacht moeten besteden aan de manieren waarop denkers vroeger naar de toekomst keken, aldus Jan Rotmans. Rotmans pleit dan ook voor ‘expectation studies’, waarbij hij de nadruk legt op het belang van politieke toekomstverwachtingen uit het verleden. Deze nieuwe benadering brengt hij in de praktijk in een onderzoek naar het wijdverspreide pessimisme over de loop van de geschiedenis, de rol van politieke instituties en de menselijke natuur in het denken van Nederlandse revolutionairen aan het einde van de achttiende eeuw.

PhD defence Tim van Gerven (UvA) – 30 June 2020

Tim van Gerven bestudeert het Scandinavisme als een culturele beweging die bijdroeg aan het articuleren van een pan-nationale Scandinavische identiteit en die bovendien een grote invloed had op de individuele natievormingsprocessen in Denemarken, Noorwegen en Zweden. Hij definieert Scandinavisme daarbij als (1) het idee dat de Scandinavische naties een gemeenschappelijke identiteit delen die de individuele nationale identiteiten doordringt en overstijgt, en (2) het cultureel activisme geïnspireerd door dit idee.

Promotoren zijn prof. dr. J.T. Leerssen en prof. dr. H.A. van der Liet. Copromotor is dr. S. van der Poll.

Vanwege de situatie rondom het coronavirus vinden de promoties aan de UvA niet – zoals gebruikelijk – plaats in Agnietenkapel of Aula. De promovendi verdedigen van achter hun pc of laptop thuis op het online platform ZOOM hun proefschrift tegenover hun begeleiders en de andere leden en de voorzitter van de promotiecommissie.

PhD defence Milou van Hout (UvA) – 29 April 2020

Rediscovering Cityness in the Adriatic Borderland:

Imagining cultural citizenship in Rijeka and Trieste across the long twentieth century

 

Milou van Hout will defend her PhD dissertation on 29 April 2020, 13:00h at the University of Amsterdam. Due to the current circumstances, this dissertation won’t be defended at the Aula but will be defended online.

 

Since the nineteenth century, urban intellectuals, purveyors of culture, politicians, and policymakers in the Adriatic have imagined and represented urban societies as one among a number of possible paths through which their different political worlds and identities can compromise and coexist. This study concerns how a range of cultural and political actors have created their city, its histories, its material landscapes, and its imaginations. It explores how, as city-makers, they imagined and experienced Trieste’s and Rijeka’s distinct cityness—often inspired by a past of flourishing ‘cosmopolitan’ free-port cities—in relation to political turmoil and shifting borders in the wider Adriatic region over the course of the long twentieth century.

 

It argues that these practices of imagining a distinct sense of cityness have provided inhabitants of the Adriatic with alternative forms of belonging and strategic ways of navigating among the different political worlds they inhabit. This study critically unpacks some of the processes through which Rijeka and Trieste have been ‘cosmopolitanized’ and highlights how cultural narratives of cityness invoked new forms of urban cultural citizenship in the Adriatic borderland.

 

Foto: Rijeka European Capital of Culture 2020, photo by Borko Vukosav.

PhD defence Lisanne Walma (UU) – 6 January 2020

PhD Defence Lisanne Walma

Between Morpheus and Mary: The Public Debate on Morphine in Dutch Newspapers, 1880 – 1939

Monday 6 January 2020 – University Hall, Domplein 29 at Utrecht

 

Summary

This dissertation focuses on the development of the Dutch public debate on morphine between 1880 and 1939. Around 1900 morphine was known on the one hand as a medical ‘Morpheus’: an important painkiller. On the other, people knew the substance as ‘Mary’, a street drug used and sold nonmedically. Between 1900 and 1939 concern about the nonmedical use of narcotics greatly increased. Using an analysis of Dutch digitized newspapers, I show how morphine kept its medical reputation during this time.

 

First, morphine’s historical reputation safeguarded its medical status in the Dutch public debate. Before 1900 multiple types of recognizable morphine use already featured in Dutch discourse, which prevented emerging stories about addiction and trafficking from becoming central to the drug’s story. Second, between 1900 and 1939 morphine’s medical and nonmedical sides both developed in favor of morphine’s overall medical reputation. Emerging depictions of morphine’s palliative use supported morphine’s reputation as an important and universal medical drug. Morphine’s nonmedical uses became associated with only limited social harm. They mostly featured harm to specific individuals, foreign users who were not considered a model for Dutch society, or user contexts where cocaine and heroin featured in a more prominent or harmful manner.

 

More details: https://www.uu.nl/en/events/between-morpheus-and-mary-the-public-debate-on-morphine-in-dutch-newspapers-1880-1939

 

PhD defence Michel van Duijnen (VU) – 19 december 2019

On Thursday 19 december 2019 at 13.45, Michel van Duijnen will defend his dissertation titled A Violent Imagination: Printed Images of Violence in the Dutch Republic, 1650-1700.
Location: aula of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Within the wide variety of printed images produced in the Dutch Republic between 1650 and 1700, explicit violence was a prominent and recurring theme. A Violent Imagination analyses the role of violence in Dutch print culture and discusses the uniquely explicit images produced during this period, which ranged from botched beheadings to cannibalistic Christians. Most importantly, this dissertation shows how violence was positioned as a distant phenomenon, taking place in the past or in faraway places, and consequently as something that could become imaginable specifically through the medium of printed images.
Download the invitation here.

PhD defence Tina van der Vlies (EUR) – 21 November 2019

Tina van der Vlies will defend her PhD thesis Echoing Events. The perpetuation of national narratives in English and Dutch history textbooks, 1920 – 2010 on Thursday 21 November 2019. The defence is held at 3.30 pm at the Senaatszaal, Erasmus Building, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Stories about the nation are very much alive and powerful nowadays. An example is the Brexit campaign, which is fuelled by the national myth of England proudly ‘standing alone’, as it did against Hitler in World War II and the Spanish Armada in 1588. This myth is strong and Prime Minister David Cameron knew that as well when he argued for Britain to remain a member of the EU on 9 May 2016: he tried to deconstruct the myth and remarkably also referred to 1588. Despite their differences, Bremainers and Brexiteers both generate ‘echoing events’. Apparently, the English victory over the Spanish Armada functions as a widespread national narrative to which various events can be linked.
Van der Vlies questioned national narratives’ perpetuation, actualization and canonization in English and Dutch history textbooks – books that have provided many people with meaning, memory and identity – in the period between 1920 and 2010. Changes and continuities in textbooks’ national narratives are often explained by direct state interventions, their specific policies and ideological agendas. This conviction is hardly problematized and other reasons for national narratives’ perpetuation in this genre are easily overlooked. Therefore, Van der Vlies selected history textbook series from England and the Netherlands – countries that do not have a system of approved textbooks unlike many others – and explored a new type of textbook research. She examined history textbooks as layered narratives in which stories overlap, interfuse and interact. The study of these ‘echoes’ revealed widespread frames of references and perpetuated schemata in the narration of national history. The study started after World War I, in 1920, when several initiatives were launched to reduce strong nationalistic visions in textbooks and ended in the new millennium, in 2010, when several countries witnessed a revival of national narratives in education.

 

Image:  Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 8 August 1588 by Philip James de Loutherbourg (1796 – oil on canvas).

PhD defence Laurie Slegtenhorst – 3 October 2019

PhD defence L.T. (Laurie) Slegtenhorst – Erasmus University Rotterdam

On Thursday the 3rd of October 2019, L.T. Slegtenhorst will defend her PhD dissertation, entitled: ‘”Echte Helden” De popularisering van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Nederland sinds 2000.’

Promotor
Prof.dr. C.R. Ribbens

Promotor
Prof.dr. M.C.R. Grever

 

PhD defence Trude Dijkstra (UvA) – 23 October 2019

13.00 sharp, Aula – Oude Lutherse kerk UvA, Singel 411, Amsterdam

Trude Dijkstra is a PhD candidate at the historic Dutch linguistics department. Her project entitled The Chinese Imprint. Printing and Publishing Chinese Religion and Philosophy in the Dutch Republic, 1595-1700 examined representations of Chinese religion and philosophy in printwork produced in the Dutch Republic between 1595 and 1700. Focusing on a variety of printed media such as books, newspapers, learned journals, and pamphlets, this study sheds new light on the representations of an often contentious subject matter to readers, and the publishing strategies of the producers. To this end, form, content, and material-technical aspects of various text types in Dutch and French are analysed to gain insights into the ways in which an early modern public of readers – who were very much divided on religious, political, economic, and linguistic fronts – could take note of Chinese religion and philosophy. Furthermore, this analysis reveals the ways this knowledge was embedded into seventeenth-century Dutch perceptions of themselves and the foreign world.

 

Image: Portret van Confucius in Philippe Couplet et al., Confucius Sinarum Philosophus, Parijs: Daniel Horthemels, 1687.

Promotie Martje aan de Kerk (UvA) – 18 September 2019

Woensdag 18 september, 14:00 stipt in de Agnietenkapel UvA, Oudezijds Voorburgwal 229-231, Amsterdam.

Martje aan de Kerk is a PhD candidate at the early modern history department. She is working on a project entitled: ‘Madness and the city. Interactions between the mad, their families and urban society in the Dutch Republic, 1600-1795.’ This project aims to uncover the interactions between the mad, their family and urban society, and to analyze the changing attitudes towards perceived madness in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The focus of the research will be on the changing daily reality of the mad and their caregivers during this period. Establishing what option people had to take care of their family members, how private and public care was arranged and who were classified as mad are key aims of this research. Thus, this project will incorporate both intra and extramural care for the mad and will therefore shed new light on the history of early modern madness in the Dutch Republic.

Promotie – Aad Haverkamp (Radboud Universiteit)

Biografieën in beweging. Een cultuurhistorische analyse van levensverhalen van Nederlandse topsporters, 1928-2014

Woensdag 27 februari 2019

Promotores: prof. dr. M.E.B. Derks, prof. dr. P.J.A.N. Rietbergen
Wie tegenwoordig een boekwinkel binnenstapt, ontkomt niet aan het grote aanbod aan sportbiografieën. De enorme populariteit van dit genre is een recent fenomeen, maar de eerste Nederlandse sportbiografie werd al in 1928 gepubliceerd. Dit boek over schaatser en wielrenner Jaap Eden vormt het vertrekpunt van een cultuurhistorische analyse van een groot aantal levensverhalen van Nederlandse sporters. Biografieën in beweging biedt inzicht in de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen van het genre van de sportbiografie tussen 1928 en 2014. Het laat zien waarom het aantal sportbiografieën met name in de laatste decennia sterk is gegroeid, maar ook hoe de manier van schrijven over sporters gaandeweg is veranderd. Door steeds nieuwe thema’s aan te boren, zoals geld, emoties en recentelijk verslavingen, zijn biografen steeds meer doorgedrongen tot de privélevens van sporters. Dit proefschrift beschrijft die ontwikkelingen tegen de achtergrond van grote veranderingen in de sportwereld, journalistiek en samenleving.

PhD Defense Wouter Klein (Utrecht University)

New Drugs for the Dutch Republic: The Commodification of Fever Remedies in the Netherlands (c. 1650-1800)

12 December 2018
12.45 – 13.45
University Hall, Domplein 29, Utrecht

Between 1650 and 1800, advertising for remedies became a standard strategy for all kinds of actors on the medical marketplace of the Netherlands. In digitized newspapers from this period, thousands of medical advertisements can be found. This period can be regarded as the first golden age of medical advertising, predating the era of mass media in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Eighteenth-century newspaper readers had their own ‘pharmaceutical literacy’ to understand and assess the contents of medical advertisements. This literacy was related to their world, in which most medical practice was still plant-based medicine. Many medicinal products became commodities before they were clearly understood in terms of ingredients, provenance or efficacy. Those who had a predominantly commercial interest in medicine (like producers, advertisers, brokers, merchants, and so on), were concerned about enlarging and consolidating their market, more than about quality assurance, proper usage of medical terminology, or the safety of the patient.

Although the success of advertising is difficult to measure, it can be observed that the practice of advertising transformed from an occasional experiment into a structural, appealing strategy to promote remedies. Every local producer of remedies could advertise, to increase the visibility of his practice to a regional, national, even international level. Circumstances beyond the personae of advertisers could influence the availability of new remedies as well, like local epidemics, or international economic and political turmoil. Comparing the trajectories of various remedies over time reveals the dynamic, varying degree of success of new remedies. This is demonstrated in the dissertation of Huizinga member Wouter Klein by the interconnected histories of fever and fever remedies, especially Peruvian bark (the exotic plant product that yields the antimalarial substance quinine). A diachronic analysis of fever and fever remedies demonstrates the usefulness the shifting commercial and cultural importance of new medicinal products, and the bottom-up expansion of a globalizing medical market, in the early modern period.

PhD supervisors: Prof. A.H.L.M. Pieters, Prof. H.G.M. Jorink

Click here for more information.

Promotie – Ruben Verwaal (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)

Fluid Bodies: Physiology and Chemistry in the Eighteenth-Century Boerhaave School

Donderdag 14 juni 2018 | 16.15 | Aula, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen
Promotores: Prof. Raingard Esser en Dr Rina Knoeff

Beschrijving

Bloed, urine, moedermelk, zweet, sperma – wat valt daar nu aan te onderzoeken? Fluid Bodies beargumenteert dat aan het begin van de achttiende eeuw nieuwe onderzoeksmethoden en wetenschappelijke instrumenten de perceptie van de lichaamsvloeistoffen ingrijpend veranderden, wat bijdroeg aan een nieuwe geneeskunde. Terwijl de Paracelsiaanse en Cartesiaanse theorieën de humeurenleer hadden afgewezen, ontwikkelden de Nederlandse hoogleraar Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738) en zijn leerlingen juist een nieuwe waardering voor de lichaamsvloeistoffen. Immers, voor een beter begrip van de fysiologie – voortplanting, spijsvertering, bloedsomloop, transpireren, urineren, etc. – waren de vloeistoffen nodig. Dankzij thermometers en hydrometers, chemische laboratoria om te mengen, en chemische processen als distillatie en fermentatie, kregen artsen nieuwe inzichten in de aard en veranderlijkheid van de lichaamssappen – en daarmee een beter begrip van de fysiologie. De Boerhaave School vond de theorie van de geneeskunde opnieuw uit, nam belangrijke bijdragen mee uit de iatrochemie en mechanische geneeskunde, en vestigde zo een nieuwe, irenische fysiologie van de vloeistoffen.

Tentoonstelling

Tot en met 16 juli 2018 loopt de tentoonstelling Gelukkig Gezond! Histories of Healthy Ageing in het Universiteitsmuseum, Groningen. Volgens gezondheidsadviezen van vóór 1800 hing gezond ouder worden af van de zogenoemde zes non-naturalia: klimaat, dieet, lichaamsbeweging, slaappatronen, emotionele balans en, natuurlijk, het gezonde vasthouden en loslaten van de lichaamssappen. Dit deel van de tentoonstelling daagt bezoekers uit om na te denken over hun toiletgang in vergelijking met vroege ideeën over gezondheid en gezond leven.

Biografie

Ruben Verwaal (Vreeland, 1986) studeerde Wetenschapsgeschiedenis in Utrecht en werkte vervolgens bij de universiteit, het Universiteitsmuseum en Spoorwegmuseum. Voor zijn promotieonderzoek in Groningen verbleef hij voor zes maanden aan de universiteiten in Cambridge, Leiden en Gotha. Meest recent was hij Santorio Fellow for Medical Humanities and Science in Pisa. Tegenwoordig werkt hij als conservator bij het Museum voor Communicatie, Den Haag, en het Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Rotterdam.